Computational Models

Perceptual Control Theory Demonstrations

The following websites provide demonstrations of the mechanism of perceptual control. Repository of computer programs developed by WIlliam T. Powers, referenced in Living Control Systems III. Adam Matic’s demo programs for your browser are […]

Economics & Marketing

Economics & Marketing

To manage a successful business, you need to know what people want, how your business is perceived, and how to deal with people. It’s ripe for a PCT approach! […]

Psychology & Mental Health


In explaining how living things control their perception, PCT is clearly highly relevant to psychology. Contemporary articles are making the case to the wider establishment that closed-loop, circular causality is much closer to how living systems actually function than the approach researchers still use. […]

Sociology & Philosophy

Sociology – a PCT introduction

Sociology involves understanding how people behave in groups, including how they communicate and interact with one another. PCT provides a way to understand how people’s goals operate when in groups, and we can use computers […]



At present the application of PCT to Religion is also at its early stages.  One exception is Lynndal Daniels’ blog on PCT and Buddhism, which links the Method of Levels, a psychotherapy that is a direct application of Perceptual […]


Call for Proposals 2024

34th IAPCT conference 14-16 november, Perth, Australia + online Deadline for abstract submission: Friday 31st of May, 2024 The IAPCT Board welcomes your proposal for a presentation or for a symposium panel discussion. We are […]

In Memoriam

David M. Goldstein

The following is from Richard S. Marken: Dr. David M. Goldstein, an early and enthusiastic supporter of PCT– his support began in 1980 – passed away on October 5, 2022. David was a colleague of […]


Perceptual Control and Human Data Fusion

Martin Taylor Outline: Human Data Fusion 1. Introduction to concepts of Perceptual Control Theory.2. The Perceptual Control Hierarchy: Conflict and Learning.3. Information overload and modes of human perception.4. Side Effects of Perceptual Control: Stealth and […]


What students are saying about PCT

Perceptual Control Theory is taught at the University of Manchester as a component of the Psychology degree. In a student group research project, we have analysed the facilitaors and obstacles to learning PCT – click here for […]


Living Control Systems II

About Bill Powers Contents Page Foreword In 1979, Bill Powers wrote a prophecy: “A scientific revolution is just around the corner, and anyone with a personal computer can participate in it…. [T]he particular subject matter […]